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By Dr. Darío Gianfelici
The use of agrochemicals cannot continue at current levels, wild clearing cannot continue, production must have a limit and if in the implementation of these limits it is believed to resign any gain, it must be thought that, in reality, it is being gained in the health of the people, in the protection of the environment and in the not too distant future.
For a long time, the increase in diseases that seem to be related to the application of pesticides and the production of transgenic soy has become a matter of concern for professionals and some attentive people. These pathologies have to do with acute and even chronic effects of exposure to pesticides that have had a constant increase in their incidence since 1996 and, very often, there is a clear relationship between occupational or accidental contact and the onset of symptoms .
But in addition, this situation of extensive monoculture production, which advances on once sacred agricultural frontiers, has an impact that both the state and the soy producers claim to ignore, and is based on the feelings of the people who have seen their small farms affected, they have lost their jobs or have been affected in one way or another by the uncontrolled expansion of the monoculture of transgenic soybean. It seems to be true what Karl Marx says in Capital, Volume I, IV Edition: “… the capitalist regime of production and accumulation, and therefore, capitalist private property, demand the destruction of private property born of work itself, that is, , the expropriation of the worker… ”. (1)
And why is soy a problem?
Is it not, perhaps, an extraordinary source of resources?
And why is it also a health problem?
It is precisely there that the discussion is centered. The proposal is based on the search for tools to try to show that the people, their health and the future of production and work in the province are at risk.
The obligation of future leaders will then be centered on how to propose alternatives for an economically profitable future, but at the same time, ecologically sustainable.
The dates selected for the investigation are not, in any way whimsical, but respond to the approval in 1995 by presidential decree of Ronald Reagan of the event Mon 40-3-2, called transgenic soybeans because of the genetic modification that developed their ability to resist the herbicide glyphosate.
Very shortly afterwards, in Argentina, the then Minister of Agriculture of the Nation, Ing. Felipe Solá, gave the agreement for ours to be the second country where this particular seed was sown. (2), determining the destruction of the model of a country that until 1975 had the largest industrial GDP in Latin America and agricultural production with more balance in its diversification, but that today exports a few goods of primary origin in a majority percentage (transgenic forage soybean, grain or oil, crude oil, unprocessed natural gas - so that Chile, for example, owner of several of our energy companies, can make fertilizers and derivatives and sweets-). That is to say, commodities without added value, raw materials from a factory.
We are facing a new form of the ‘granary of the world’, now we are fattening the pigs to the EU and China. We also sell crude oil and gas to the countries that have appropriated our energy wealth, so that they can industrialize the by-products and then, as Repsol does, they sell us gas oil at prices, and in the quantities that they want and do not want. they are what the production needs.
And today, it is intended, through the production of fuels based on transgenic soybeans, to convince us that the happy future of the Homeland passes through there. When, in reality, this new "agribusiness" is nothing more than a finishing touch to the policy of neocolonialism with effects that can be terrible for the health and job security of our people.
Why produce fuel from GM soy?
The answer is simple, just to meet the demands of multinational agrochemical producers. Since, as shown in the following table, soybeans are one of the least efficient oilseeds, in terms of liters of fuel per hectare, for this production.
Oil crop yield per hectare:http://www.biodiesel-uruguay.com/articulos/uy-5.php
-Soya (Glicine max): 420 liters
- Rice (Oriza sativa): 770 liters
- Tung (Aleurites fordii): 880 liters
- Sunflower (Helianthus annuus): 890 liters
- Peanuts (Arachis hipogaea): 990 liters
- Rape (Brassica napus): 1100 liters
- Castor bean / tartago (Ricinus communis): 1320 liters
- Jatropha / tempate / pinion (Jatropha curcas): 1590 liters
- Avocado, avocado (Persea americana): 2460 liters
- Coconut (Cocos nucifera): 2510 liters
- Coconut tree (Acrocomia aculeata): 4200 liters
- Palm (Elaeis guineensis): 5550 liters
Although some of these crops are not produced in the country, it is clear that soy is, or should be, the last choice in this industry that plans to invade Latin America.
But in a world where the need for food is increasingly pressing in many countries, this production that, they said, would solve the world's hunger due to its high protein content, is now destined to feed the fuel tanks of vehicles Europeans.
It is very difficult to understand how never In the United States or Argentina, studies were made of the environmental, productive, or, much less, socio-sanitary impact that this particular event could produce.
In 1972, the WHO estimated that half a million poisonings occurred in the world caused by pesticides every year, with more than 5,000 deaths (approximately 1% mortality), suggesting that developing countries suffered half of these poisonings and three-quarters of them. The deaths.
In the following decade, the WHO estimated more than 3 million poisonings with a probable mortality of 1%, while the United Nations considered that the poisoning rate in southern countries could be 13 times higher than in industrialized countries, therefore which declared pesticides as one of the biggest problems worldwide.
By 1991 it was estimated that 25 million cases are not registered. For example, in Central America, where during 1999-2001 there were 400,000 intoxicated persons per year, the under-registration was calculated at about 98%.
But while the thousands of people poisoned or killed in the field may go unnoticed, major accidents during transport or in factories and human tragedies due to mass poisoning are proof that these potent poisons are there, licensed by governments and permanently threatening rural and urban inhabitants.
As an example, the following may be mentioned, in addition to the Bhopal tragedy:
a) More than 35 years ago, on November 25, 1967, dozens of children were poisoned and died in Chiquinquirá, Colombia, when they had breakfast with bread made with wheat flour contaminated with Folidol (paration)
b) 32 years later, in October 1999, 24 children died in Taucamarca, Peru, when they ingested food contaminated with the same organophosphate insecticide, for which a lawsuit is filed in Congress by the families.
c) Deaths caused by Syngenta's paraquat herbicide (Gramoxone, Gramuron, Agroquat, Gramafin, Actinic, Calliquat) in the world are estimated in the thousands. In Costa Rica since 1980 and for two decades it has been reported as the leading cause of poisonings and responsible for a third of the deaths of hundreds of agricultural workers.
At the Fourth Meeting of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 1 to 7 November 2003, it was recognized that pesticide poisoning of users and their communities, especially agricultural workers and small farmers, must be avoided from developing countries and countries with economies in transition, for which it was proposed that governments prohibit or restrict the use and availability (including import and / or export, when required) of acutely toxic pesticides (such as such as formulations classified by the WHO as extremely dangerous (class Ia) and highly dangerous (class Ib)) and / or those associated with incidents of intoxication, increasing and severe.
In Entre Ríos, despite the complaints filed, there is no record. In Argentina there is no record.
On the other hand, the large quantity of chemicals used in genetically modified (GM) crops have aggravated environmental pollution in Argentina. There has been an increase in soil pathogens and changes in weed communities, especially the appearance of new varieties with greater tolerance to herbicide (mainly glyphosate), which generates a greater amount of use of the herbicide in question (28 million liters in 1997/98 to 56 million in 1998/99).
The incidence of structural changes in soy-dependence is demonstrated in the development of the crop of legume in the last 25 years. In the 70s, the cultivated area was only 38,000 hectares, in 2004 they exceeded 14 million hectares.
Argentina is the world's leading exporter of processed soy products with more than 50% of the production converted into oil and flour. The country exports between 90 and 95% of its production to 150 destinations, mainly China and Europe. (3)
In the case of glyphosate, known as Roundup (the brand of the multinational Monsanto) the Ministry of Health of the Nation, in its Manual of Primary Attention of Poisonings says: Degree of toxicity: Glyphosate is a chemical that can cause pictures of mild to severe poisoning, even death. The fatal dose in an adult is 100-150 ml orally. (4)
But it is necessary to bear in mind that when the application of pesticides is carried out in the field, never one of them is applied, but rather different "cocktails" are produced, according to the criteria of the agronomist, the producer himself, or the applicator who, many times, deprives his economic interests over the need for application, the health of the producer and his neighbors and his own, since no one is more exposed to toxins than those who handle them.
According to Ing. Agr. Elsa Nivia, coordinator of Rapalmira RAP - AL Colombia, in the United States, Williams, Kroes and Munro, in a study called Safety Evaluation and Risk Assessment of the Herbicide Roundup and Its Active Ingredient, Glyphosate, for Humans, published in December 1999, studied the lethal doses of glyphosate in humans due to suicides or suicide attempts, taking Roundup as toxic.
These researchers found several studies describing the effect observed after accidental or intentional ingestion of Roundup. No deaths from accidental ingestion were reported. However, severe effects such as hypotension, acute renal failure and death were seen in a large number of cases of intentional ingestion by suicide attempt.
In these cases, death occurred a few days after ingestion. In one case, the amount of Roundup ingested was determined to be approximately 180 ml, in others it is said that intakes of between 200 and 260 ml would have resulted in death.
The final cause of death would have been hypovolemic shock. Since similar effects have been obtained with other surfactants similar to the POEA used in Roundup, it can be assumed that the toxic effects would be linked to it.
But what should draw the attention of the responsible authorities is that if glyphosate is found in Roundup at 41%, that is, at 480 g / l. The lethal dose would be, for humans, 624 mg / kg while for rats it is 5600 mg / kg
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Roundup® herbicide, in all its varieties, through the production of the protein CP4 enolpyruvylsikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The EPSPS enzyme is present in the sikimic acid pathway for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in plants and microorganisms.
Inhibition of this enzyme by glyphosate leads to a deficiency in the production of aromatic amino acids and to an inhibition of plant growth. The bio-synthetic aromatic amino acid pathway is not present in the life forms of mammals, birds or aquatic fauna, which explains the selective action of glyphosate in plants and its low toxicity in mammals. (5)
This product is indivisibly associated with the multinational Monsanto, since RR soy is a formulation of seeds resistant to this herbicide through a complex genetic mechanism that includes the use of antibiotics and that, to date, has not shown adverse effects on the environment or the people. Although it is true, no serious studies were ever done to investigate these effects.
The advertising idea was that with a low-toxicity herbicide and, at low doses, plant pests that decreased crop yields would be controlled.
Then the Roundup appears with 41% active principle, then Roundup Full follows with 51.7%, we go back with the Roundup Full II which has 48.8% and we advance again with the Roundup FG with 72%, to reach the Roundup Max which has a 74.7% active principle. With this, the argument of the low dose is absolutely destroyed, since it is evident that more and more agrochemicals are irrigated not only in number of liters per hectare but also in terms of a higher percentage of active principle. (6)
But there is an additional one, glyphosate is water-soluble, so in order to cross cell membranes it must acquire fat solubility. For this, surfactants are added that the production company does not advertise on the labels as it is considered a trade secret. This shows that, in reality, producers, agronomists and all those people who handle these products They do not know they are using.
But since secrets are very difficult to keep in this world, we do know that these surfactants have extremely high toxicity, even higher than glyphosate itself, so its danger is significant despite the indifference of those who should resolve this situation.
A study from the University of Caen shows the following conclusions:
- "Surprisingly Roundup is more toxic than its active components"
- “We conclude that the endocrine and toxic effects of Roundup, not just glyphosate, are observable in mammals. And we suggest that Roundup adjuvants increase bioavailability and bioconcentration. "
- “Our study shows that Roundup acts as an endocrine disruptor in mammals at concentrations 100 times smaller of those recommended for agricultural use " (7)
In acute poisonings, symptoms such as: gastrointestinal pain, massive loss of gastrointestinal fluid, vomiting, excess fluid in the lungs, pulmonary congestion or dysfunction, pneumonia, loss of consciousness and destruction of red blood cells, abnormal electrocardiograms, low blood pressure can be seen and kidney damage or failure.
In children, when exposed to a fumigation, diarrhea and vomiting are usually seen accompanied by headaches, a rare symptom in this age group and that should arouse the curiosity of doctors. But in reality, and as is common to almost all these poisons, severe problems occur at a distance, when it is difficult to establish the relationship between the exposure and the disease event. And this event is usually the most terrible: cancer.
The formulated glyphosate, Roundup as sold, activates what is called the checkpoint (control proteins). Each cell has two checkpoints that are activated only when there are problems in cell division. This disturbance is due to the fact that it interacts with the DNA of cells and that is how carcinogens work.
Once the checkpoint is activated there are three possibilities: the first is that the cell repairs the DNA; the second, that it does apoptosis or cell suicide; and the third, that they neither repair themselves nor die because the gene that is damaged is one of those that regulates the checkpoint and that is how the cancer process begins.
If there are 10,000 cells, 9,999 die, but if there is one that lives and has damaged DNA, which corresponds to the checkpoint gene, and divides, in half an hour there are already two, which later become 4, 8, 16. (8)
Another theory, similar in reality, divides the carcinogenesis process into three stages: A first one of initiation, in which a cell directly or indirectly undergoes an alteration in its DNA, in its appropriate genes (proto-oncogenes, anti-oncogenes, etc. ) The chemical compound here acts as the initiator.
In the second stage, of promotion, the transformed cell undergoes a process of clonal expansion to give rise to a mass of daughter cells. The substances capable of catalyzing this process, without diminishing the cellular immunological capacities, are called promoters.
In the final stage, called progression, the chemicals cause these cells to invade neighboring tissues and still travel in the body, causing metastases.
According to a study by the American Cancer Association published in 1995, only a small proportion of cancer has a genetic origin and a percentage no greater than 5% would be of viral origin, therefore the incidence of environmental factors is very high and the modification of any one of them would lead to a dramatic reduction in the number of cases.
There is an element that gives greater drama to this problem and it is the high frequency of malignant diseases in young people, especially children. Eng. Elsa Nivia clearly explains this situation:
a) Children, being smaller, are poisoned with lower amounts of pesticides than adults.
b) Due to the immaturity of their development they are more susceptible than adults to the effects of poisons.
c) They experience the highest dietary exposures because they eat more food per kilogram of body weight than other age groups.
d) Many times, the liver and other organs of children do not have the ability to break down certain pesticides.
e) A child's immune system is not fully developed, which increases the risks of acquiring diseases.
f) The children of the countryside are in contact with pesticides used in the agricultural environment that surrounds them; therefore, there is more opportunity for potential increased exposure.
It is necessary to remember that glyphosate, plus surfactants, is very frequently associated with 2 - 4 - D. This is a highly toxic herbicide and, also, high carcinogenicity and fetotoxicity, which will be part of that sadly famous Agent Orange with which the US Army it spread disease and death over the jungles of Vietnam and Cambodia.
They are chemical substances that supplant natural hormones, blocking their action or raising their levels, disrupting the normal processes of reproduction and development and causing estrogen-like effects in animals. (9) For the purposes of this work, we are dealing with an insecticide with a very high level of use in soybeans and other crops to control insect pests: endosulfan.
It is an organochlorine, which belongs to the chemical group of cyclodienes whose characteristic is to have at least one cyclic ring with double bond and whose chemical name is 6,7,8,9,10,10 -hexachloro-1 3-oxide , 5,5a, 6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9, -methane-2,4,3-benzodioxatepine.
The effects of endocrine disruptors vary from species to species and from substance to substance. However, four general statements can be made:
* Disruptive chemicals can have totally different effects on the embryo, fetus or perinatal organism than on the adult;
* The effects are more frequent in the offspring than in the exposed parent;
* The timing of exposure in the developing organism is decisive in determining its character and future potential;
* Although critical exposure occurs during embryonic development, obvious manifestations may not occur until maturity.
These artificial estrogen mimics differ in fundamental ways from plant estrogens. Our body is capable of breaking down and excreting natural estrogens, but the human species lacks evolutionary experience with these synthetic compounds that resist normal decomposition processes and accumulate in the body, subjecting humans and animals to low-level exposure but long-lasting. This pattern of chronic exposure to hormonal substances is unprecedented in our evolutionary history, and it would take millennia to adapt to this new danger.
No one yet knows how much of the endocrine disrupting chemicals is necessary to pose a hazard to humans. There is data to indicate that they could be very small if the exposure takes place before birth.
Insignificant amounts of free estrogen have been found to alter the course of development in utero; as insignificant as a tenth of a trillion. Endocrine disrupting chemicals can work together and small, seemingly insignificant amounts of individual chemicals can have a significant cumulative effect.
|Endocrine Disruptors - Effects on the Human Species|
|In the man||In Women|
|Testicular and prostate cancer||Cancer of the breast, ovary and uterus|
|Hypospadias||Early embryonic death|
|Decreased testosterone level||Malformations in the offspring|
|Decrease in the quantity and quality of sperm|
|Decreased IQ||Decreased IQ|
The number of studies that demonstrate the presence of this insecticide, or its metabolites in breast milk is countless. (10, 11, 12, 13, 14)
Faced with this situation, the concern of those of us who live in rural areas in the provinces of Entre Ríos, Santa Fe, Córdoba, Buenos Aires, or at least it should be, is evident. But before a medical knowledge marked by the numerical, the measurable, it is necessary to present evidence of that tenor to demonstrate this reality.
Faced with the difficulty in counting resources: human, temporal and economic to do so, these voluntaristic signs remain, true slaps that despair inspires us before the need to show that, in addition to the pasteras there is another serious threat to the health of the people of our Province. We ourselves of course.
The increase observed in the consultations of certain specialties related to this problem at the “San Roque” Maternal and Child Hospital in the city of Paraná, shows a strong increase as of 1996.
At the Hospital “Dr. José M. Miranda ”from Cerrito, Entre Ríos, Argentina, where I have been working for twenty-four years, shows a notable increase in consultations for pathologies associated with acute poisoning by pesticides such as respiratory tract diseases and dermatitis. On the other hand, a certain regularity is noted in other prevalent pathologies such as hypertension, digestive disorders and joint diseases.
Table No. 1: Outpatient consultations in some specialties of the “San Roque” Maternal and Child Hospital in Paraná between 1990 and 2002
|External consultations by specialty|
In this table, for which I must thank the concern of Dr. Daniel Verzeñassi., It is seen how endocrinology, neurology and genetics consultations have increased since 1996. The case of the oncohematology service, recently created due to the unmanageable increase in the number of cases, demonstrates the same situation.
Table No. 2: Most frequent reasons for consultation in the outpatient clinic of the Dr. Miranda de Cerrito Hospital, Entre Ríos, Argentina between 1994 and 2004
|Gastritis and Dispep.||393||307||227||248||250||228||219||196||300||257||305|
|Enf. Low Ans||306||410||523||654||615||665||738||656||679||642||634|
In this modest study, a reason for consultation was taken for three diseases that, in the light of current knowledge, are not related to agrochemicals. Hypertension, dyspepsia and joint diseases do not suffer, in the considered time, significant modifications. However, respiratory diseases and dermatitis suffer an increase, which in the case of dermatitis reaches approximately 500% increase.
Table No. 3: Field work, Health Center “Dr. Luis Gianotti ”, Oro Verde. Javier Fernández et al.
|Percentage / Year||1999||2000||2001||2002||2003||2004||2005||2006|
|Enf. Resp. High||15,02||14,4||15,34||15,8||13,91||16,47||17,2||18,9|
This study carried out in a town near Paraná is consistent, in its results, with the previous ones.
Table No. 4 - SOURCE: Secretariat of Health of Entre Ríos - Directorate of Epidemiology. disc. Surveillance Epidemiology and Laboratory Division
Again, the same image. Our country is eminently agricultural producer, it depends for its development, its evolution and maintenance of production. The farmer is not a serial killer but an honest worker who tries to get the maximum benefit from his always exhausting work.
However, as true as the above is that the use of agrochemicals cannot continue at current levels, wild clearing cannot continue, production must have a limit and if in the implementation of these limits it is believed to resign any profit it must to think that, in reality, it is winning in the health of the people, in the protection of the environment and in the not too distant future.
In Latin America, especially in Colombia, Ecuador and Panama, there is vast and unfortunate experience in the use and abuse of all kinds of poisons used in agricultural exploitation.
Men pretend to forget, or ignore that it is they and their economic development policies who have to bend to nature, and that it is not nature that bows to myopic and immediate domestication, for the economic benefit of today, to save all the unforeseen and abuses of the past at the cost of the annihilation of the future, forgetting or turning a deaf ear to the fact that the earth, the environment is not our property but rather a loan from future generations and that as such must be respected and preserved; because that environment is part of nature and that nature has needed thousands of centuries of processes of evolution, adaptation and interactions, for the existence of life on earth to become a reality.
This almost fantastic fight against big “multinational endriages” and their local fans, unconsciously reproduces a feeling that evokes the difficulty of crossing a narrow channel and finding a way out that, hopefully, is towards a better world.
Finally, I present the following completely irrefutable arguments about the reasons why the indiscriminate and audacious use of agrochemical poisons must stop:
Article Number 41 of the National Constitution of the Argentine Republic
All inhabitants enjoy the right to a healthy, balanced environment, suitable for human development and for productive activities to satisfy present needs without compromising those of future generations; and they have a duty to preserve it. Environmental damage will generate, as a priority, the obligation to repair, as established by law.
The authorities shall provide for the protection of this right, for the rational use of natural resources, for the preservation of natural and cultural heritage and biological diversity, and for environmental information and education.
It corresponds to the Nation to dictate the norms that contain the minimum protection budgets, and to the provinces, those necessary to complement them, without these altering the local jurisdictions.
The entry into the national territory of current or potentially dangerous waste, and radioactive waste is prohibited.
Precautionary principle, Article Number 4 of the General Environmental Law Number 25675/02, Promulgated on November 28, 2002:
"... when there is a danger of serious or irreversible damage, the absence of information or scientific certainty should not be used as a reason to postpone the adoption of effective measures, based on costs, to prevent environmental degradation ..."
* Darío Gianfelici He is a Doctor, graduated from the National University of Rosario and based in the Entre Ríos town of Cerrito, where he practices his profession. He has carried out research work and numerous exhibitions on topics of his specialty, in addition to publishing the book "Soy, health and people." Conventional Constituent Elect for the reform of our provincial Magna Carta.
1. Capital, Karl Marx. Volume I, IV Edition.
2. Some questions in debate about transgenic crops and their effects on the ecosystem and the population. An article by Alberto J. Lapolla, Agricultural Genetic Engineer. 20-3-05.
3. Link bulletin Nro 53. Network of action on pesticides and its alternatives for Latin America. Ing. Elsa Nivia, August 2001.
4. "Manual of Primary Attention of Poisonings". Ministry of Health of the Nation. Rep. Argentina. Volume II, Special Part. Year 2002.
5. Health and environmental effects of herbicides containing glyphosate, Elsa Nivia. agronomist. Lic. In Biology and Chemistry. Executive Director RAPALMIRA. PAN-Colombia. Cali.
7. Differential effects of Gliphosate and Roundup on human placental cells and aromatase. Sophie Richard, Safa Moslemi, Herbert Sipahutar, Nora Benachour and Gilles-Eric Serallini. Laboratoire de Biochemie et Biologie Moleculaire, USC-INCRA, Universite de Caen, France
8. ‘El Glifosato provoca las primeras etapas del cáncer’. Robert Bellé del Centro Nacional de la Investigación Científica de la Universidad Pierre y Marie Curie, Francia.
9. Our Stolen Future (New York: Penguin Books, 1996). Edición en castellano: Nuestro futuro robado, de Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski y Pete Myers (1997); Ecoespaña y Gaia-Proyecto 2050, Madrid.
10. Contaminación ambiental y Pediatría: residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche de madres de Montevideo. Autor: Carlos A. Bauzá, Profesor Adjunto Honorario de Pediatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. Publicación: Archivos de Pediatría del Uruguay. 46(1): 31-42, 1975. Órgano oficial de la Sociedad Uruguaya de Pediatría. Disponible en: Biblioteca de la Sociedad Uruguaya de Pediatría.
11. Contaminación ambiental y el niño: r esiduos de insecticidas clorados en leche de madres de Montevideo (2do. estudio) y leche desecada integral de vaca. Autores: Carlos A. Bauzá, Profesor-Director, Cátedra de Pediatría Hospital ‘Pereira Rossell’ Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. Publicación: Archivos de Pediatría del Uruguay 46(3) : 139-148, 1975.Disponible en: Biblioteca Facultad de Medicina y la Biblioteca de la Sociedad Uruguaya de Pediatría.
12. Niveles sanguíneos de plaguicidas organoclorado en adultos expuestos y no expuestos profesionalmente. Autores: Mabel Burger de Pereyra, Jenny Pronczuk y Pamela Schonbrod de Stasi, asistentes del CIAT del Hospital de Clínicas; Ing. Quím. Carlos Decia y Quím. Renata Antonaz, Centro de Investigaciones Veterinarias M. Rubino; e Ing. Mario Borouknovitch, Dirección de Sanidad Vegetal M.A.P. Publicación: Prensa Médica Uruguaya 5(2) : 45-48, 1982.Disponible en: Biblioteca de Facultad de Medicina.
13. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche humana. Autores: Dres. M. Burger, J. Pronczuk, C. Alonso, H. Triador, M. Illa, E. Américo, C. Decia, R. Antonaz, y E. Fogel, de la Cátedra y Departamento de Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. Publicación: Toxicología 2(3): 11-17 set.-dic. 1987. Disponible en: Biblioteca Facultad de Medicina.
14. Rol de los plaguicidas organoclorados en el cáncer de mama. Autores: M. Burger, M. Mate, R. Laviña, J. Carzoglio, R. Antonaz y O. Rampoldi, del Departamento de Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de la República. Publicación: Toxicología 17 : 79-82, 2000.Disponible en: Biblioteca Facultad de Medicina