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By Javier Rodríguez Pardo
Nuclear NO Proliferation
With the first nuclear explosion, the powers involved set themselves the target
take the lead in a race without limits reeking the entire planet of radioactive emissions with negligent promiscuity and at uninhabitable and future-uncertain levels.
In theory, we were always concerned about preventing the button that starts the Great War from being pressed, but it is more demonic to travel daily between tons of nuclear waste and megatonic weapons, as soon as the latest generation weapons are obsolete and thus we continue to accumulate lethal energy waste . As Einstein predicted, "the fourth world fight will be made with sticks and stones", but although it does not happen equally, we coexist with this scum that multiplies the background radiation of the planet, produces terminal diseases and irreversibly alters the genetic information of its biosphere. in addition to forcing us to live on the scene of the apocalypse.
In the 1970s, the United States increased its atomic arsenal and required the rest of the world to comply with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (SALT). Those countries that do not have nuclear development should refrain from manufacturing weapons with that power. Instead, the powers that possess it will abide by a clause of the Non-Proliferation Treaty inviting them to negotiate in good faith the "cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament." The result was always the same: they lowered the pace of an armament madness that they worried about hiding but they never negotiated disarmament.
At the beginning of the atomic revolution and in accordance with the policy of "Atoms for Peace" as a remedy to mitigate the Hiroshima disaster, the United States imposed restrictions and controls so that the power of the atom would not fall into other hands. From buying radioactive waste from countries that started with nuclear power plants to generating, through the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission in 1946, foreign inspectors empowered to investigate those who accessed this technology, with the purpose of controlling that nuclear energy is used only for peaceful purposes, thus prohibiting them from making lethal weapons.
To think naively that the Soviet Union, the countries of the East, the Middle East and the prolific Asian region, were going to allow the breaking of their sovereignty with internal inspections of agents clearly controlled by the United States, made us reach the new century with a quantity of nations with devastating atomic power. The powerful American nation, however, maintained its "Agency for Arms Control and Disarmament" with the fixed idea of negotiating the SALT talks with the former Soviet Union and polarizing with this power of the then Warsaw Pact the discussion of nuclear disarmament every more and more hypothetical.
At the same time, in its attempt to monitor and control nuclear life on the planet, it was collecting tons of radioactive waste from other nations because plutonium inhabits those spent fuel rods and with it the possibility of manufacturing the atomic arsenal. Each reactor sold by General Electric and Westinhouse committed the buyer country to return to North America the radioactive waste it generated.
The accumulation of nuclear waste became an uncontrollable nightmare. So he decided to create the Western Suppliers Group: all uranium exports had to be approved by that international body. The group formed by the United States, Great Britain and Canada had already joined forces before in order to buy as much uranium reserve as there is in the world and always with the same motive: to control and prevent other nations from dedicating themselves to the atomic bomb without achieving also hide the monopoly business they did. Already accustomed to its dominant role, the United States was betting that no one would achieve a nuclear development that would pose a threat to it. To do this, they spared no expense in investigation and espionage. In creating inspection bodies and in participating in control associations and financial pressure to subdue the adversary, regardless of the means.
Fission energy was always associated with the concept of power and from its beginnings it enjoyed the well-known "state secret". Its dominance marked respect in international forums and the nuclear nations made the presence of this "cutting edge technology" felt. Prominent Argentine officials, for example, supported the construction of the Gastre Nuclear Repository in Chubut Patagonia because "counting on this type of nuclear development," they said, "we could speak in equal conditions with the English." The defeat of the war for the Falkland Islands is still today for some reasons for inequality and warlike imbalance.
These are the same reasons that led China to set off the first bomb in 1964, although it is known that those with the capacity to produce atomic weapons do not need to announce or carry out similar explosions. India made a single detonation but it was to tell the world that it already possessed power. Proud, she immediately explained the success achieved without euphemisms, as for later reading by her neighbors, mainly Pakistan. Instead, Israel has the atomic bomb and never detonated it to test it. "No need ... the bomb is done."
Put plainly, the systems or mechanisms to control nuclear explosions are as ridiculous as they are ineffective. As much as the North American desperation to maintain its hegemony as we have been explaining, although the use of enormous funds and resources to maintain that monopoly in accordance with the vision of the world and the destiny imposed by that imperial nation is understandable. Almost all the countries with atomic weapons carried out detonations of low power, and even less than one kiloton, in the most absolute secrecy.
Peter Pringle and James Spigelman wrote in "The Nuclear Barons" that "in 1970 a specially appointed group of specialists from the Vienna-based International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) understood that if a country removed material from a plutonium plant , that is to say, from a reprocessor or a breeder reactor, it would undoubtedly be capable of making the artifact in ten days. This period was called "critical time". Therefore, in hypothesis, to investigate this deviation, the plant should be inspected at least every ten days".
To date, the only way to deactivate any attempt to manufacture atomic war material is to inspect all existing nuclear power plants on the planet because it is in their reactors that the fearsome but also beloved plutonium originates. And this requirement should be practiced every ten days.
So it is hardly credible that they are now telling us to accept ten international monitoring stations to promote an altruistic treaty for the complete ban on nuclear tests.
Of what use have the safeguards stations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty been until now if any country was able to manufacture atomic military material starting from the plutonium generated by its reactor installed in its nuclear power plant? "Two years passed before the Nixon cabinet publicly acknowledged that it had supplied heavy water to India and that it had done so without imposing restrictions on its use" (P. Pringle and J. Spigelman, "The Nuclear Barons"). So the "backroom bomb" (read terrorist) or the supermegaton bomb, are possible in a few hours for any country that has isolated plutonium and it is useless to buy the world's uraniferous reserves, as they did at first, trying to avoid let others build nuclear weapons.
The president of India cared for "a single intimidating explosion that would demonstrate the nuclear capacity of his homeland, while for Israel it was not necessary to detonate it. Both nations are part of the military nuclear club and there was no one who could prevent it apart from finding out with the fait accompli .
Successive experiences such as those mentioned were necessary for the United States to begin to imagine a sophisticated security system. Meanwhile, it does not hold back its support for the International Energy Agency or the United Nations by signing the clauses of the Non-Proliferation Treaty but always reserving the power to carry out "explosions for peaceful purposes". The greatest power on the planet concludes by admitting that it will have to build a global security system that takes its cybernetic eye to the most ignored corner and that also includes the use of a rapid counter attack system in the shortest possible time.
As for the word "proliferation" of the core agreement only blocks one of the parties. The idea consists of not allowing that war material to continue to be manufactured, preventing new nations from reaching nuclear power, but what happens to what is "already proliferated?" That is, the countries that made the atomic bomb ban it from those that have not yet made it. The same happened when they decided to allow underground explosions and not atmospheric ones. It was not forbidden to manufacture the plague, but they controlled to be the only ones with the capacity to do so. The same authors, Pringle and Spigelman, explain it as follows: "The leaders of the two superpowers no longer referred to" disarmament "but to" arms control. "In order to appease those who protested the change, the The new United States government body, created in 1962 to take care of such tasks, was called the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. But when the nuclear test ban treaty was presented to the public debate in 1963, the spokesmen of the administration insisted that their role was a measure of non- proliferation, not relinquishment of armsAs underground experiences were much more difficult and expensive, the treaty would curb aspiring atomic power. Nothing would change from doors to inside. In fact the United States would accelerate its testing program, even if it was underground. "
YEAR 2002. TREATY OF COMPLETE PROHIBITION OF NUCLEAR TESTS
The title of this ambitious global commitment does not surprise anyone. Again, the treaty bans nuclear tests but does not prohibit building the bombs.
Argentina ratified the treaty and therefore integrates the INTERNATIONAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (IMS), which comprises four types of technologies: hydroacoustic, seismological, radionuclide and infrasound. In total there are 321 stations around the world, of which nine are located in Argentina, plus a central headquarters in Buenos Aires that will depend on the National Regulatory Authority (ARN) -read National Atomic Energy Commission- (CNEA). Three of the stations will be dedicated to inspecting radionuclides, two are infrasound, three will make seismic records and there will be a radionuclide laboratory. The chosen places are for now Salta, Paso Flores, Coronel Fontana, Neuquén (Villa Traful), Bariloche and Ushuaia (Tolhuin). And they will be managed by international personnel. At the local level, there are two bodies responsible: the National Regulatory Authority in almost all the stations except the seismic ones, which will depend on INPRES, the National Institute for Seismic Prevention. There are 44 signatory states, of which 41 have signed and three have not. In addition, there are 13 who did not ratify said treaty either: Algeria, China, the Democratic Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Iran, Israel, the United States, Colombia, Vietnam and -of course- India and Pakistan- who did not even sign it . In other words, there are 44 countries that have nuclear power or research reactors. So the treaty will enter into force when all parties ratify it.
The signatory states undertake not to carry out nuclear explosions, to prevent them and detect them in case others do. They will also make it possible to verify, monitor and facilitate inspections, as well as request the Executive Committee any investigation "in situ", approving the measure by a simple majority of the signatory countries. All inspections will enjoy free access, use of the natural resources of the place and diplomatic immunity among other minor powers. In its article 8 the convention warns that ten years after being in force a "Conference of the States Parties" will be held to examine its operation and "It will study the possibility of allowing nuclear explosions to be carried out for peaceful purposes". This nonsense puts things in their place and invites us to reflect on the crude errors of the Treaty, which, as has happened until now, further subdues emerging countries by altering their sovereignty in the hands of the globalizing goalkeeper.
This treaty binds the signatory countries through a Conference of the States Parties, an Advisory Council, the Technical Secretariat and, fundamentally, the International Data Center based in Vienna, prior link with the satellite network. As the agreement explains, all the stations of the International Surveillance System collect information from infrasound channels, digitized sensors of all equipment, etc. and they send the signal instantaneously to the International Data Center (IDC) to the city of Vienna (Austria), where the seat of the Treaty is located (a city where, curiously, the International Atomic Energy Agency also has its brain).
There, the signals from the 321 stations scattered around the globe are archived and analyzed in real time using a specific computer code. It is our purpose to emphasize that such a network of earth stations will make a detailed computer map of the planet and of each region in particular, not only relevant to its specific nuclear detection function. In the opinion of technicians and specialists, the valuable information, through suitable equipment, is the most perfect complement to the "space protection shield", devised and developed by successive US administrations (Reagan-Kissinger-Bush), and refloated today.
The Treaty is a compendium of valuable data but it is also an active presence in strategic latitudes and whoever accesses the satellite does not need to go to Vienna. This is not part of any fantasy as we could read in the notes of scientific technocrats.
Very recently, the European Parliament issued a report on the characteristics of the ECHELON network, which, as is known, is an international espionage web created by the United States with the aim of intercepting all electronic global communications. It has the ability to intervene on cell phones and read Internet emails. In addition, "two" encrypted "keys were discovered in the Windows program, one from API and the other named NSAkey. NSA is the acronym for the United States National Security Agency." It was during the first months of the year 2000 when it acquired resonance and credibility when the European Parliament discovered that confidential information about its industries was being used by North American businessmen. The European Community issues an official document blaming the United States of "abusing its dominant position" and explains to the rest of the world that it is ECHELON, an imposing spy network that uses more than 120 satellites and bases in 134 countries, with gigantic computers capturing telephone words, emails and faxes from all over the planet. Thousands of satellite dishes relay all the information to a monumental cybernetic eye installed in Virginia, where the National Security Agency (NSA) resides with 38,000 employees and 4,000 million dollars of budget. Their stations on the ground, linked to their satellites - their own or others - are their backbone. ECHELON captures it all: mobile phones, underwater telephone cables, fiber optics, Internet, etc. There are more than 3,000 million daily communications, selected among others by an "electronic dictionary" attentive to keywords. Satellites use microwaves or hyperfrequencies similar to light to fish for traveling data. Any voice is decoded and even the smallest particle of light that comes off copper or fiber optic cables serves to reconstruct the entire message. No one escapes: organizations, governments, companies, politicians or ordinary citizens. Email is the most vulnerable communication; the tracking system "sniffs" all the data circulating on the Internet.
ECHELEON is made up of five countries, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and England, and according to information from the Sunday Times, it contains a black list monitoring "any politically active person." Military or religious, environmental or human rights organizations, terrorists or drug traffickers, enemies or allies inhabit their radars and, of course, pirate useful information from their multinationals and perpetuate their domains.
The report published by the European Community and discussed in its Parliament ceased to be science fiction. And although ECHELON already existed and could not prevent the destruction of the Twin Towers or the attack on the Pentagon, specialists maintain that by multiplying the stations and the replication capacity of the "Galactic Shield", there will be no more surprises.
At this point we must not forget what the spirit of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is, because ECHELON and the new International Surveillance System detect but another system is the one that must act if we keep in mind "the critical time" (ten days) between count on the plutonium and manufacture the artifact. Although the convention only tries to pursue detonations that in real time offer data on nuclear explosions greater than one kiloton of power. Lower than this level may escape the records of surveillance stations. Until now, as we have said, American attempts to monitor and inspect the nuclear activity of other nations have been unsuccessful. This International Nuclear Explosion Ban Treaty Surveillance System is its best approach, let's say, but it is also the first door for "in situ" investigations trampling sovereignties. In reality, avoiding nuclear explosions and preventing the construction of atomic devices seems an insurmountable dichotomy. The Treaty does not prohibit the manufacture of missiles, nor their warheads. Nor do they build sites to launch them, much less develop the technology of sophisticated atomic devices. The Treaty does not prevent nuclear smuggling or the threat of nuclear war. Nor does it prevent the transfer of huge ships laden with waste to recycle plutonium. Ultimately, it appears to have been created for the sole purpose of stopping the emission of radionuclides by avoiding testing, with the blessing of the United Nations, as to entertain or silence clueless environmentalists. And this is the great paradigm of the agreement because it does not rule out further "detonations for peaceful purposes". We remember an old French proposal to create a canal in the Valdés Peninsula, Chubut, through nuclear explosions. The motive was to produce tidal electrical energy due to the difference in tides between the two gulfs, a project that is still in force because technocratic thinking does not pay attention to the means, or the effects, or the fragility of the ecosystems and it seems commendable to pollute the biosphere of radiation as long as it is for peaceful purposes.
Argentina cedes its territorial space with generous criteria of diplomatic immunity, but without any practical use for it, even if they allow copies of the records stored in Vienna. Therefore, we want to prevent the real reasons for the Treaty that we have succinctly exposed here from the publicity concept of "atoms for peace" to the present, and we do not doubt the real reading that it keeps.
THE GALACTIC SHIELD NEEDS GROUND BASES
"The only man who can reduce Argentine interest rates, reduce the risks of financial contagion in emerging markets, and save democracy in the Southern Cone of America is Donald Rumsfeld, the Secretary of Defense of the United States. he who has to develop the strategic vision of the missile defense theater of operations that gives Argentina a role in the national security policy of the United States such that investors come to believe that the Bush administration will not allow that country It goes into default. Once that perceptual change occurs, no additional official help will be necessary, because in the market, what is perceived is reality. "
(Part of the unmissable article by David Hale, in charge of the World Economy Department at Zurich Financial Services).
The note was published by the Financial Times, London, on July 18, 2001 with the title "How Donald Rumsfeld Can Save Argentina".
Among other analyzes, the document explains "the risk that the Argentine financial crisis will spiral out of control and prepare the ground for events that could destabilize the entire Mercosur region for many years." It abounds in a minute detail of Argentine financial relations with world markets, announces the fall of dollarization and mentions opinion polls that reflect a serious institutional crisis, of credibility in the system and in politicians. He foreshadows upcoming "Marxist or populist" governments and warns of a regional contagion with a domino effect on Brazil and other countries in the area. We insist with the date of the aforementioned article published by the Financial Times, July 2001, because no one yet imagined the historic cacerolazos or could foresee the rout of successive governments after the defection of Domingo Cavallo. Hale's foreboding article explains the reasons for Argentina's international isolation by stating that Alan Greenspan, Paul O'Neil, Gordon Brown and Hans Eichel, among others, left the Argentine ship.
"But there is hope for the situation in Argentina -David Hale is encouraged to announce.
The Argentine government could divide the costs of its loans by two (half the foreign debt) if it could convince the United States Department of Defense to establish some kind of military base in that country. The Pentagon has plans to invest large sums in the missile defense system. Argentina could request the Pentagon to build one of its surveillance stations in the southern hemisphere on its territory, because it is better located than other traditional allies of the United States. Australia could have trouble accepting such an installation, considering that it will soon elect a Labor government, which does not view missile defense with sympathy. New Zealand eliminated its air force, and withdrew from the Western alliance system. South Africa has an ambiguous relationship with US military power, and it would probably not be a reliable location for missile defense. "
In our article, Nuclear Missiles in Patagonia, we wrote some characteristics about the geopolitical conditions of the strategic Patagonian region and made reference to this edition of the Financial Times where it is decidedly offered to cancel 50% of Argentina's foreign debt with anti-missile bases and emphasizes that "the Pentagon has plans to invest large sums in the missile defense system" and even the analyst comes even closer stating that "the United States could build one of its surveillance stations in the southern hemisphere", when we all know that the Treaty of Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban comprises an International Monitoring System (IMS). But the United States does not reduce its ambition to a surveillance system. Their spokespersons realize the need to create a greater protection shield with missile interceptor bases and for this they have also chosen the Province of Chubut, near the town of Camarones, halfway between Trelew and Comodoro Rivadavia and another to just 30 kms. north of Trelew, where until recently they had installed the gigantic OMEGA communications antenna. Nothing so far allows us to confirm the places but it will be in Patagonia Argentina. When the governor of Chubut, José Luis Lizurume, was consulted by the press, he did not rule out the species, he only managed to pronounce, without convincing, that "as long as he is governor, he will prevent those military projects from being carried out."
From the first minute of his government, Carlos Menem led his country after the North American military adventure. Argentina's participation in the Gulf War and its desire for inclusion in NATO were not enough. It also resolved that the armed forces should not only be at the disposal of the United Nations Blue Helmets, but decidedly at the service of joint US special forces. In this society, political resolutions and military destinies are the patrimony of the United States, while Argentina offers a sad mercenary role, even submitting and surrendering its own national territory. The radical government of Fernando De La Rua did the same.
In this sense we can synthesize a succession of interference and violations of sovereignty denounced in the National Congress and before the courts. Those presented by the American Association of Jurists and the Peace and Justice Service (SERPAJ) stand out. The nullity is requested, as unconstitutional, the entry into Argentine territory of military forces from various countries due to joint exercises or exercises under the direction of the United States of North America. At the same time, several deputies from different provinces accuse the Executive Power of allowing the illegal entry of the military. Troop movements are observed in Salta responding to a so-called "Exercise Cabañas 2001" with almost 1,500 soldiers from special forces, among them 464 from Argentina, 574 from the US, 47 from Chile and 240 from Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Uruguay. The absence of Colombia and Venezuela, the next two countries that are and will be "intervened" by the United States, did not attract attention. The "Plan Colombia" is put into practice. In Misiones the training of "green berets" was filmed; in the Paraná Delta the operations of North American Marines are constant; In the Province of Entre Ríos, under the name FLUVIAL V, some 400 troops carried out maneuvers "in restricted waters", in the Ybicui Islands department, with the landing of US Marines.
The "Operative Cabañas 2000" had taken place in the Province of Córdoba with 500 "green berets" from the United States and troops from six South American countries. The air forces of Argentina and the United States did the same under the name "Aguila II" using the base of the Fifth Air Brigade of Villa Reynolds, in the Province of San Luis.
Shortly afterwards, US Army personnel settled in the base of the Squadron 36 of the National Gendarmerie based in Esquel, Chubut. The reason was, as stated, "to share experiences of survival and displacement in land areas through combined exercises."
In all cases, the Argentine parliament learned from the evidence since the National Constitution was dispensed with, which in its article 75, paragraph 28, indicates that it is the authority of the National Congress to authorize the entry of foreign troops into its territory. There was never a debate in Congress. The people had no voice through their representatives. He never made a decision.
THE BASES ARE A QUESTION
The conclusion is known. The United States is the imperial power that by definition needs to be perpetuated. That gentleman of the Monroe doctrine once said with similar words that the United States begins in Alaska and ends in Ushuaia. Despite not being so in the geographical limits, it is because of the domain limits. Whoever dominates the other, whatever the way of doing it, ends up extending their limits. The other question is what for? And still not answering this question, the sequence that follows is the security and strength equation. In May 2001, President Bush announced the construction of the "missile shield" which, believe it or not, for any human being is an imposing network of satellites in the cosmos and earth bases with intelligent computers strategically located with rocket batteries. atomic and laser beams capable of intercepting any military aggression, preferably far from its borders. In this way he rescues the Reagan-Kissinger-Bush plan imagined a few years earlier. Because the shield also has a global eye that investigates the enemy and even scrutinizes the smallest corner of the allies. Electronics already investigates the voices and noises of communications, records suspicious words with photographic detail and is capable of "sniffing out" radioisotopes hidden in Arab, Chinese or Arkansas warheads. The story of controlling the nuclear age that they inaugurated with Hiroshima and Nagasaki comes down to this cosmic shield that inquisitively registers the slightest hum of the biosphere and its deadly nuclear response. La Argentina está en los planes y la Patagonia es un sitio estratégico. Desconocer esto significa ignorar "el planeta unificado" y el lugar que nos han destinado. Aceptarlo es negarnos la libertad.
Nota del Autor:
Adjuntamos al presente trabajo una serie de documentos que creemos imprescindibles para un mejor análisis. Es nuestro aporte al debate en cuestión y es también nuestra firme oposición a estaciones de investigación o bases militares dirigidas y controlados por potencias extranjeras y, en el mejor de los casos, solamente útiles para esas potencias:
a) Misiles Nucleares en la Patagonia. Artículo que hemos editado en el otoño pasado y que aún se puede encontrar en portales de Internet y en la edición del Proyecto Lemu, HOJA X HOJA.
< https://www.ecoportal.net/articulos/misiles.htm >
b) Detalle oficial del Tratado de Prohibición Completa de Ensayos Nucleares (CTBT). Incluye la lista de los países firmantes y las estaciones argentinas.
c) Lista y Localización de las Estaciones Internacionales de Vigilancia (IMS), del Tratado de Prohibición Completa de Ensayos Nucleares.
d) Copia completa del artículo de David Hale, "Como Donald Rumsfeld puede salvar a la Argentina, publicado por el Financial Times de Londres el 18 de julio de 2001.
e) Informe del Parlamento de la Unión Europea que denuncia y explica el funcionamiento de ECHELON.